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European Journal of Experimental Biology, 2012, 2 (5):1708-1713

 

ISSN: 2248 –9215

 

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Modeling Susceptible Districts in GIS for Managing the Repair and

 

Maintenance of Ancient Monuments

 

Bashir Beig-Babaee

 

Malekan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Malekan, Iran

 

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

 

ABSTARCT

 

Iran has many significant signs of historical urbanization. These signs include historical monuments and ancient

 

buildings. It is imperative to protect these signs, for they are always susceptible to natural disasters and human

 

interference. Thus, there has been an increasing need for an all-embracing approach to natural disasters and their

 

consequences. The historical city of Tabriz is considered as one of the earthquake zones of Iran due to its vicinity to

 

active dextral faults. Meanwhile, the municipality of District 8 of Tabriz, which is known as the historical and

 

cultural municipality in Tabriz, has priceless historical places, a rusty fabric, and heavy traffic and the historical

 

buildings of the city are always threatened by natural and unnatural disasters. In the present research, weighted

 

index overlay analysis (WIOA) was used in GIS to distinguish the susceptible areas of the region. The layers used in

 

this model include distance from the fault, the quality of the structures, vicinity to roads, vicinity to open spaces, fire

 

station, gas station, and the topography of the studied region. The results showed that only 13.94% of the studied

 

region is in a favorable or very favorable condition in terms of susceptibility during crisis. 47.37% of the region is

 

in an average condition. Finally, 38.69% of the region is in unfavorable or very unfavorable condition in this

 

regard. This necessitates precise, systematic planning before, during, and after crisis for protection, repair, and

 

maintenance of the ancient monuments of the region.

 

Keywords:

 

 

 

historical monuments, Bazaar of Tabriz, District 8, WIOA

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Our historical cities are disappearing and during the past two decades there has been an increasing formation of vast,

 

modern urban fabric around the historical fabric. The excessive expansion of cities, natural disasters, and

 

unscientific human interferences (e.g. roads, passages, and bridges that run through historical structures) has led to

 

irreversible damages to the historical fabric [1]. Due to the unpredictable nature of most natural disasters and the

 

necessity to make quick decisions and take prompt action, a new branch of knowledge has emerged which is known

 

as management and maintenance of historical monuments. Tabriz City, with its dense population and priceless

 

historic structures, is always threated by these hazards. Under these conditions, any natural or unnatural crisis will

 

cause irremediable damages and obviously correct management is the only way to prevent such events [2,3].

 

Region 8 of Tabriz is of utmost importance due to its historical fabric and its dense population. Natural disasters and

 

lack of proper management has caused much destruction in the historical monuments of the region. It is thus

 

imperative to distinguish different areas of the district in terms of their susceptibility [4]. This district is located at

 

the center of the city and attracts a large population on a daily basis. Hence, there is always much traffic in the

 

streets and thoroughfares that puts much pressure on the historical fabric of the district. Due to the rusty fabric and

 

dense population, any crisis in the district will clearly lead to considerable casualties and historical damage. Thus, an

 

attempt was made in the present research to distinguish the susceptible areas of District 8 of Tabriz using GIS [5].

 

Bashir Beig-Babaee

Euro. J. Exp. Bio., 2012, 2 (5):1708-1713

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Pourmohammadi et al. (2006) carried out a research on the role and application of GIS in controlling and rescuing

 

the urban and rural residents of Tabriz. They studied the role of GIS in crisis management and rescue process before,

 

during, and after crisis in Tabriz [6]. Asgari and Parhizcar (2006) studied the strategies for dealing with earthquakes

 

and reducing the resulting damages in District 17 of Tehran. They introduced GIS as a helpful tool for crisis

 

management by urban planners [7]. Adhami and Maleki (2009) examined the role of GIS in crisis prevention and

 

management. They believe that GIS data and efficiently trained personnel can increase the efficiency of crisis

 

response systems [2]. Asgari and colleagues (cited in Nesyani, 2010) studied the role of urban services in managing

 

crises and accidents with an approach to GIS. Nesyani (2010) also applied SDSS in GIS for crisis management to

 

analyze District 8 of Tabriz in terms of its susceptibility to earthquakes [8].

 

The Studied Region

 

Tabriz is one of the historical cities of Iran with an area of 140 km

 

2 located at 38°04N 46°18

E. The mean altitude is

about 1340 meters. The historical, geographical, cultural, economic position of Tabriz has given it a special place in

 

the country. Meanwhile, District 8 of Tabriz, with an area of 260 hectares, constitutes the major rustic and historical

 

fabric of the city.

 

Susceptibility of Tabriz to natural disasters

 

The Iranian plateau is a disaster-prone area and Tabriz City is highly susceptible to natural disasters due to its

 

geographical structure and its special topography. Earthquake and flood are the major natural disasters that have

 

accompanied this ancient city throughout history, imposing much casualties and costs on the region. The historical

 

and ancient monuments of the city have suffered the greatest damage from such destructive earthquakes.

 

The natural disasters that threaten the historical monuments of cities

 

1. Flood

 

According to hydrological and meteorological studies of Tabriz, February, March, and April are the rainiest months

 

of the year (ZISTA Architecture & Urban Planning Consulting, 1999).

 

 

 

Table 1 – The flood-based disasters in Tabriz in a five-year period

 

City Region Date Damage (million rial)

 

Tabriz

 

Central part 1998 79

 

Villages of the central part 1994 1620

 

Villages of the central part 1996 501

 

Entire city 1996 501

 

Subsidiary parts 1997 12900

 

Source: ZISTA (1999)

 

2. Earthquake

 

Tabriz is one of the earthquake-prone regions of the country, such that earthquakes have destroyed the city several

 

times throughout history and have caused many casualties and many costs. One of the most destructive of

 

earthquakes occurred in 1721 BC in Tabriz where 250 thousand people were killed (Table 2). Considering the multimillion

 

population of Tabriz, any earthquake can cause dreadful casualties.

 

Table 2 – Destructive earthquakes in Tabriz

 

Year Severity of destruction Casualties

 

858 BC Destruction of the entire city -

 

1041 BC Severe earthquake 50000

 

1042 BC Severe earthquake 40000

 

1527 BC Severe earthquake 40000

 

1721 BC Very severe earthquake 250000

 

1779 BC Severe earthquake 100000

 

1780 BC Severe earthquake 40000

 

Source: Shafi’i (2005)

 

The historical value of the region

 

There are many historical monuments that have survived from different period and are scattered around the region,

 

including Bazaar of Tabriz, Arg (castle) of Tabriz, Congregational Mosque of Tabriz, Saheb-ol-Amr Mosque, Blue

 

Mosque, Maqbaratoshoara, Tabriz Museum, etc.

 

Bashir Beig-Babaee

Euro. J. Exp. Bio., 2012, 2 (5):1708-1713

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MATERIALS AND METHODS

 

In the present research, library studies were carried out to identify the driving factors in locating the regions

 

susceptible to natural disasters. The collected parameters are as follows:

 

·

 

 

Distance from dangerous areas such as gas stations, power lines such as water and gas, etc.

 

 

·

 

 

Distance from roads and thoroughfares (minor arterial roads and local roads)

 

 

·

 

 

Access to open spaces (the more the access, the less the susceptibility)

 

 

·

 

 

Topography (slopes are positively associated with susceptibility)

 

 

·

 

 

Distance from faults (negatively associated with susceptibility)

 

 

·

 

 

Quality of the structures

 

 

·

 

 

Distance from fire stations

Creating the information layers

 

Considering the mentioned parameters, there was a need for a land use map for the management of the historical

 

fabric and reduction of damages at the time of disasters. Thus, the land use map of Tabriz was acquired from the

 

Department of Housing and Urban Development. Then, different areas designated for specific purposes of land use

 

were marked out and used for extracting the required layers (figure 2). It must be noted that a map related to the

 

faults as well as the topography of the region were also obtained from the Department of Natural Resources.

 

 

 

Figure 1 – The land use map of Region 8 of Tabriz

 

Standardization of the information layers

 

The first step in managing the maintenance of historical monuments at the time of crisis is to extract the required

 

information layers. Most of the layers of the required criteria and sub-criteria for identification of susceptible regions

 

are separated and valuated by creating a buffer or, in some cases, by means of Query Builder. The different layers

 

are drawn on the surface of the studied region and are stored in the database in the form of raster layers (which are

 

able to reclassify). The layers are prioritized and standardized into 3 to 6 categories based on the created buffer or

 

the existing applications and the final layers are as follows:

 

Bashir Beig-Babaee

Euro. J. Exp. Bio., 2012, 2 (5):1708-1713

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Bashir Beig-Babaee

Euro. J. Exp. Bio., 2012, 2 (5):1708-1713

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Pelagia Research Library

 

RESULTS

 

Weighted index overlay analysis

 

Spatial analysis is done to identify the potential regions that are extracted from the values of each pixel of the raster

 

map based on some criteria. The weighted index overlay model enables us to combine different maps. In the present

 

research the multi-criteria method is used and the model is defined as (Murray, 2003): [9].

 

=

Σ

n

 

i i

 

ij i

 

W

 

S W

 

S

 

where is the score assigned to each cell, is the weight of the ith information layer, and is the score of the jth

 

class from the ith map. In this model, each class of different layers can be assigned a particular weight and

 

considering the importance of each layer compared to other layers, we can assign a weight to each layer based on its

 

importance. This is one of the characteristics of this model in combining layers [10, 11]. To obtain the output map

 

for the susceptible areas of Region 8 of Tabriz, the maps were classified and the potential of each of the parameters

 

was evaluated by the authors (table 4).

 

Table 3 – The weights of the evaluated criteria in the index overlay method

 

Localization Criteria

 

Priority Importance

 

Distance from faults 19%

 

Quality of structures 20%

 

Vicinity to roads 18%

 

Vicinity to open spaces 11%

 

Distance from fire station 12%

 

Distance from gas station 8%

 

Altitude 12%

 

After standardization, the layers were imported in Weighted Overly environment in ARC GIS 9/2. After modeling

 

(figure 8).

 

Figure 8 – The final map obtained from WIOA

 

Bashir Beig-Babaee

Euro. J. Exp. Bio., 2012, 2 (5):1708-1713

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Pelagia Research Library

 

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

 

Protection of historical monuments against natural disasters has received increasing attention over the last few

 

decades. Especially after recent earthquakes and other devastating natural disasters that led to destruction of

 

priceless historical monuments around the world, this issue has turned into a recognized and common issue. In

 

countries where managers of service organizations had no idea of managing the maintenance of historical

 

monuments for prevention, readiness, and confrontation plans, coordination between different sectors, public

 

training, etc., we have witnessed an increasing awareness among the people of the society in this regard. Now the

 

responsibility of preparing the society falls on the shoulders of administrators, planners, and experts. Tabriz is

 

susceptible to various hazards due to its special geographical and climatic condition and its natural structure and

 

most of the known natural disasters of the world have occurred in this city. Considering the history of the city with

 

its hundreds of priceless historical monuments, there is a greater chance of damage and costs due to hazards. Thus,

 

the bitter experiences of the past on the one hand and the necessity for a prompt response to different disasters that

 

threaten the historical fabric of the city on the other hand entails creating a system for confronting these destructive

 

crises.

 

One of the most critical regions of Tabriz, i.e. Region 8, was studied in the present research. The factors that

 

distinguish this region from others are as follows: the ancient monuments that has survived different historical

 

periods are scattered around the city, including Bazaar of Tabriz, Arg (castle) of Tabriz, Congregational Mosque of

 

Tabriz, Saheb-ol-Amr Mosque, Blue Mosque, Maqbaratoshoara, Tabriz Museum, etc. Another important

 

characteristic of the region is the presence of old residential areas. The disastrous record of this city necessitated the

 

adoption of strategies for classifying the susceptible parts of the region. This would enable us to take necessary

 

actions for preventing possible damage to the rustic and historical fabric of the city before, during, and after crisis.

 

Thus, the susceptibility map of the region was created using weighted index overlay method (figure 8). The results

 

of the output of the model indicate that only 13.94% of the studied region is in a favorable or very favorable

 

condition. 47.37% of the area is in an average condition in terms of susceptibility during crises. 38.69% of the area

 

is in an unfavorable or very unfavorable condition. Considering the studies carried out and the results related to the

 

layer of fire station, it must be noted that the radius of action of the closest station is between 1250-1650 meters, we

 

have an area in the northwest of the region that is not covered by the firefighting services. It is thus recommended

 

that another fire station be established in that area. It is also recommended that the instable non-historical regions be

 

converted to open spaces to reduce the pressure on the historical fabric and enable its repair and maintenance.

 

In general, since a large part of Region 8 of Tabriz lies within the average to very unfavorable spectrum, it is

 

necessary for the officials to implement the best strategy for protection of the historical monuments of the region

 

and conversion of the old, non-historical areas to open spaces as specified by the overlay map (figure 8) and thus

 

reduce the destructive physical pressures caused by traffic. The recommended strategies and others can prevent the

 

destruction of the historical fabric and the rustic residential areas of the region and therefore maintain the historical

 

identity of the city.

 

REFERENCES

 

[1] M Ahadnejad, National Congress on Rustic Urban Fabrics

 

, 2009,

pp 221.

[2] T Ahmadi, A study of the historical fabric,

 

 

2008,

pp 19-53.

[3] S Adhami, J Maleki, GIS and its application in prevention and management of crisis,

 

 

2009,

pp68-130.

[4] B Beig-Babaee, Urban GIS and electronic citizens,

 

 

2007,

pp 32-112.

[5] B Beig-Babaee, Doctorate Dissertation, IAU,

 

 

2011,

pp 48.

[6] M.R Pourmohammadi, The role and application of GIS in management,

 

 

2006,

pp 32-86.

[7] A Asgari, A Parhizcar, Application of urban planning methods for reduction of susceptibility to earthquake

 

damages using GIS,

 

 

2008,

pp 23-89.

[8] B Nesyani, Crisis management in case of earthquakes in urban areas before it occurs,

 

 

2010,

pp 65.

[9] J Murray, A.T Ogden, P.M McDaniel, Soil Sci.

 

 

2003,

168(11): 759-768.

[10] S Tudes, N.D Yigiter, Preparation of land use planning model using GIS based on AHP,

 

 

2009,

235-245.

[11] J.J Kao, Y Lin, Multifactor spatial analysis for landfill siting,

 

 

1997,

122(10): 902-908.

 

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